GLOSSARY OF LAND REVENUE WORDS

(From Punjab Settlement manual)

A

Abadi dehInhabited site of village.
AbiWatered by lift from tanks, pools, marshes, or streams.
AbianaAn assessment levied in addition to the assessment at unirrigated rates on account of the advantage derived from irrigation (Paragraph 61).
AbwabCesses.
AdhlapiA man who by sinking a well in another man’s land acquires ownership in half of the land attached to the well (paragraph 173).
Adna malikInferior owner.
AhtrafiA cess paid by artisance to the village proprietors.
Ala lambardarChief lambardar (Headman).
Ala malik.Superior owner.
AminSurveyor employed for making village maps.
AngCess on cattle levied by proprietors on other residents in village for grazing in village waste.
AnwandaClearing tenant in Dera Ghazi Khan (See note, page 107 of Settlement manual).
AsamiTenant (in old settlement literature the term is sometimes confined to a resident tenant).

B

BachhDistribution of revenue over holdings.
BadasturLedger.
BahiUnaltered.
BajraA kind of millet (Pennisetum typhodeum).
BakhraShare (in Pathan tracts).
BandaHamlet (in Pathan tracts).
BangarUpland tract.
BanjarUncultivated land.
BaniaVillage’s shopkeeper, money-lender.
BanjarUncultivated land.
Banjar kadimNew fallow (for all explanation see paragraph 267).
Banjar kadimOld fallow (for full explanation see paragraph 267).
BaraniDependent on rainfall.
BataiRent taken by division of crop.
BattaA form of village tenure (see paragraph 139).
BhaicharaSub-number (paragraph 271).
BhoangDue paid harvest by harvest to a godkesh tenant (note on page 107).
BhungaCess on cattle levied by proprietors on other residents in a village for grazing in village waste.
BhurSand.
BighaA measure of area. In the Western Punjab the bigha is half a ghumao, in the east the shahjahani bigha is five-eighths of an acre and the zamindari or kacha bigha five-twenty fourths of an acre. The actual bigha used by the Zamindari does not always correspond with the kacha bigha used in settlement surveys (see paragraph 243).
BirA preserve.
BisaOne-twentieth of a bigha (q. v).
BiswiA fee paid in recognition of property right.
BiswansiOne-twentieth of a bigha (q.v).
BurjiA survey pillar.
ButemarA tenant who has acquired permanent rights in the land by clearing it of jangal.

C

 ChaharamA grant of one-fourth of the ruler’s share of the produce to an individual or family of influence.
 ChahWell; well-holding.
 ChahiIrrigated from a well.
 Chahi khalisIrrigated only from a well as distinguished from chahi-narhi (q.v) or chahi-sailab.
 Chahi-nahriIrrigated partly from a well and partly from canal.
 ChakAssessment circle, a block of land.
 ChakbatApplied to a patti or sub-division of an estate which has all its land lying in one block (see Khetbat).
ChakdarInferior owner (in South-West Punjab). For full explanation, (see paragraph 168).
 ChaklaAssessment circle.
 ChakotaLump grain rent or rent consisting of a fixed amount of grain in the rabi, and a fixed amount of cash in the kharif harvest (see paragraph 312).
 ChapparbandA term for a resident (see tenant paragraph 196) entitled to permanent occupation at a fixed rate of rent (see paragraph 197).
 ChariA kind of millet (q.v) grown for fodder (see jowar).
 ChaudhriRural notable.
ChaukidarVillage watchman.
ChelaSupiritual son or pupil.
ChhambhA marsh.
ChharA system of silt clearance under which the clearance is effected by the irrigators themselves (see paragraph 449).
ChundavandA custom of inheritance under which several sons by one wife inherit the same share as a single son by another wife (see pagvand).

D

DaftriOwner in pathan tracts (see paragraph 157).
DakPost.
DakarStiff clay soil.
DarbarCouncil or other governing body in a Native State.
Darkhwast MalTender of engagement to pay the land revenue.
Duzari….Assessment.
DaryaRiver.
Dastur-ul-amalHand-book for the guidance of district revenue officers in carrying out of the provisions of the settlement.
DaulEstimate of revenue payable by different estates (see paragraph 16).
DaulpRidge.
DharatWeighment fee; levied on sales of produce within village (see paragraph 94).
DhenkliA hand-lever well.
DhokHamlet.
DoabCountry lying between two rivers.
DohliDeath-bed gift of a small plot of land to a Brahman.

E

EkfasliYielding one crop in each agricultural year.

F

FakirReligious mendicant.
Fard Ranngazi.List of fields for colouring purposes.

G

GharldakhilkarTenant-at-will.
Ghair MaurasiTenant-at-will.
GhairmumkinBarren.
GhiClarified butter.
GhumaoA measure of area (see paragraph 243).
GirdawarKanungo or supervisor of patwaris (Paragraph 292-A).
GirdawariHarvest inspection.
GodkeshTenant in Multan who has acquired a permanent title by breaking up waste (note on page 107).
GoraLand close to a village site which is often heavily manured.
GoshaCorner.
GotSub-division of a tribe.
GuruSpiritual father or guide.

H

Hakimi hissaThe ruler’s share of the produce.
Hakk buhaDorr tax; a cess levied by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).
HakkdarA tenant entitled to permanent occupation at a fixed rate of rent (see paragraph 197).
HamsayasDependents occupying outlying hamlets of a pathan estate on condition of assisting in repelling raids on the lands of the proprietors (see paragraph 159).
HariApplied to land cropped only in the rabi harvest.
HathrakhaidarA man who agreed to become responsible for payment of the revenue on condition of receiving the proprietor’s share of the produce; has less a fee paid in recognition of the owner’s proprietary title (see paragraph 172).

I

IkrarnamaVillage administration paper, same as wajib-ul-arz.
IliaqawarRelating to an ilaka or tract.
InamA cash allowance paid to secure the services of a man of influence.
InamdarThe holder of an inam (q.v)
IsmiA proprietary fee.

J

JadidSee banjar jaded. Also a class of tenant ( see paragraph 196).
JagirAn assignmen of land revenue.
JagirdarHolder of an assignment of land-revenue.
JamaLand revenue demand.
JamabandiRegister of holdings of owners and tenants showing land held by each and amounts payable as rent, land revenue, and cesses.
JamaiA class of tenant (see paragraph 196).
JangalUncultivated land covered with brushwood and small trees.
JhalarA Persian-wheel by which water is raised from a stream or canal.
JahalariIrrigated by jhalar (q.v).
JhilA sheet of water.
JhuriFee paid to proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).
JinswarRelating to crops, also the crop statement for any particular harvest.
JowarA kind of millet (Sorghum Vulgare).

K

KabzaPossession.
KachaIncomplete or imperfect, applied to village measures of area and weights as distinguished from those recognised by Government; not lined with masonry (of a well).
Kacha asamiTerm used for a tenant-at-will (see paragraph 197).
Kacha bighaSee bigha.
Kacha malbaThe system under which the amount actually expended on the common pruposes fo a village is distributed periodically over the proprietors. To be distinguished from pakka malba (q.v).
KachahriDistrict court-house.
KadamA pace (see paragraph 243).
KadimSee banjar kadim also a class of tenant (see paragraph 197).
KadimiA class of tennat (see paragraph 198).
KaifiyatReport note.
KalarBarren land, also applied to reh efflorescence, and in the east of the Punjab to sour clay rice (Land kalar dahr).
KamlanaCess paid by artisans to the proprietors of the village in which they ply their trade (see paragraph 94).
KanAppraisement of crops, realization of landlord’s share of produce in cash after appraising its amount and value.
KanalA measure or area (see paragraph 243).
KaniaA man who appraises crops.
KankarLime modules.
KankutSame as kan (q.v).
KanungoSupervisor of patwaris.
KaramUnit of length.
KardarTitle of official in Indian State.
KarguzariOutturn of work.
KarukanLength and breadth.
KasurFee paid in recognition of proprietary title (see paragraph 170).
KhadirLowlying land near river.
KhakaRough plan.
KhalsaThe Sikh commonwealth. Revenue credited to Government as contrasted with jagir (q.v.) revenues.
KhamtahsilDirect management of estate by Government.
KharabaPortion of crop which has failed to come to maturity.
KharachCess realized by landlord in addition to rent (see paragraph 339).
KharifAutumn harvest.
KhasanveSame as vesh (q.v).
KhasraList of folds, field register.
Khasra girdawari.Harvest inspection register.
KhataHolding of a tenant.
KhatauniA list of holdings of tenants. Holding slips prepared at re-measurement (see Appendix VII).
KhetbatApplied to a patti or sub-division of an estate; all the land of which does not lie in a single block (see chakbat).
KhewatA list of owners’ holdings.
Khewat-khatauni.A combined khewat and khatauni corresponding to the present jamabandi (see Paragraph 274).
KhudkashtCultivated by the owner himself.
Khula veshFresh calculation of shares at time of vesh (q.v.) (See paragraph 158).
Khush-haisiyatiOwner’s rate, water, or canal-advantage rate.
Killabandi(See Appendix XIV).
Kudhi-LaminiA cess on hearths realized by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).
KuhmarA tenant in Dera Gazi Khan who has earned a permanent title by sinking a well (see paragraph 211).

L

Lakh1,00,000.
LakhirajExempt from assessment.
LambardarVillage headman.
Latha girdawari.Cloth copy of the patwari’s map (Paragraph 292 and Appendix XXI).
LathbandA tenant who acquires rights in land by embanking fields (see Paragraph 211).
LathmarSame as lathband (q.v).
LichhFee paid in recognition of proprietary title (see Paragraph 169).
LungiFee paid to proprietor when enterin on possession of land (see paragraph 168).

M

MafiRevenue free.
MafidarThe holder of an assignment of land revenue.
MahalEstate.
MahsulShare of produce due to sate, now share of produce taken by person who pays the revenue in money (see paragraph 170).
MahsulkhorA kind of land revenue farmer (see paragraph 172).
MairaSandy loam.
MalLand Revenue
MalatarSame as hamsaya (q.v).
MalbaFund out of which common village expenses are defrayed.
MalguzarPerson responsible for payment of land revenue.
MalguzariRelating to assessment assessable.
MalikOwner in Western Punjab; malik means a leading man in a section of a tribe.
Malik adnaInferior proprietor.
Malik alaSuperior proprietor.
MalikanaFee paid in recogniting of proprietary title.
Malik KabzaA man who owners the land actually in his possession; but has no share in the common property of the village community (see paragraph 142).
MarlaA measure of area (see paragraph 243).
MasriA small pulse.
MatyatA word used in United provinces fro a clay soil. Occupancy tenant.
MauzaVillage.
MauzawarBy villages (paragraph 512).
Milan khasraAn area statement abstracted from the khasra (q.v) annual area statement.
Milan rakbaAnnual area statement.
Milkiyat adnaInferior ownership.
Milkiyat alaSuperior ownership.
Milkiyat makbuzTenure of a malik kabza (q.v).
MinPortion.
MinhaiExcluded from the assessable area.
MinjumlaPart out of a whole (Instruction 3, Appendix VIII).
MirasiA class of Landholder (See paragraph 196).
MirasidarA class of landholder (see Paragraph 196).
Misl haqiyatRecord-of- rights.
MothA small pulse (phareoolus trilobus).
MuhtarafaSame as ahtrafi (q.v).
MukaddimSuperior proprietor (see paragraph 167), also a leading man or headman in a village community (see paragraph 115).
MakaddmiFee paid to superior proprietor in recognition of proprietary title (see paragraph 169).
MukarraridarA kind of occupancy tenant (see paragraph 211).
MundhimarA man who acquires occupancy right in land by clearing it of jangal (see paragraph 211).
MunshiAn Indian clerk.
Muntakhib assamiwarStatement of owners and tenants, holding with detail of fields and rent, etc.
MusaviMapping sheet.
MushakhsadarA farmer of the land revenue (See paragraph 172).

N

NaghaCommutation paid for failure to perform ehher (q.v) labour.
NahriIrrigated from a canal.
Nahri-partsAssessment rate over and above the assessment rate or unirrigated land applied to nahri land in calculating the fixed assessment which it shall pay (see paragraph 446).
Naib-tehsildarThe deputy or assistant of he Tehsildar (q.v.).
Naksha alamatList of conventional signs.
Naksha-intikalStatement of land transfers.
Naksha-lakhirajStatement of land revenue assignments.
Naksha-thakbastVillage boundary map (see paragraphs 248 and 270).
NalaDrain or watercourse.
NautorLand brought under cultivation for the first time.
NazimGovernor of large tract in an Indian State.
NazranaAn abatement from the revenue to an estate, etc., retained by government in making a land revenue assignment to an individual.
NazulLand, etc. which has become the property of government by escheat or failure of heirs.
NiaiManured.

P

PachotraA surcharge of 5 per cent on the revenue paid to village headmen.
PagFee paid to proprietor on entering on possession of land and (see paragraph 168).
PagvandA custom of inheritance under which sons by different wives inherit equal shares in land (see chundavand) the property being divided per capita.
PahikashtA tenant who does not live in the village in which he cultivates land .
PaipathA fee paid, to a superior owner in a recognition of his proprietary title (see paragraph 169).
PakkaComplete or perfect applied to measures of weight and area recognized by government as distinguished from those used in villages; lined with masonry (of a well).
Pakka malbaThe system under which the amount to be collected for common village expenses in fixed at a definite percentage on the land revenue.
PanaA sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).
PanahiA tenant protected from ejectment for a term, of years (See paragraph 203).
PanapalatA form of periodical distribution of a land in the Gurgaon District (see paragraph 158).
ParchaAn extract from a khatauni or Jamabandi, a copy of the entry in a khatauni regarding his holding given to a right-holder at measurement (see paragraph 2, Appendix VII).
ParganaA group of estates forming a sub-division of a district or Tehsil.
Part SirkarGovernment copy of the new settlement record.
Part TehsilTehsil copy of the settlement map (paragraph 292 and Appendix XXI).
PartaAssessment rate.
PattaLeather cover such as is used fro protecting account books by Indian shopkeepers (see Appendix VII) also deed of grant (see paragraph 152).
PattiA sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128); also a well holding (see paragraph 165).
PattidarA form of village tenure (see paragraphs 137 and 138).
PatwariA village accountant or registrar.
Puchh-bakriA cess on marriage levied by proprietors from other resides in a village (see paragraph 94).

R

RabiSpring harvest.
RaiyatTenant.
RaiyatwariA form of settlement in which the occupant of each holdings is under a separate engagement with Government, as distinguished from the village settlement in force in North-Western area.
RakhA preserve.
RangsazA colourist.
Rassa-ButiA form of tenure in riverain estates in Sialko (see note on page 72).
RastahPathway.
RausliA loam soil.
Riwaj-I-amRecord of customs followed by the chief tribes in a district in the matter of marriage, inheritance, etc. (see paragraphs 561—567).
RetSand.
RohiA stiffish soil containing a considerable amount of clay.
Rubakati-akhirBrief abstract of settlement proceedings appended to settlement record (see paragraph 270).

S

SabikFormer.
SadrHeadquarters station.
Sad malguzarsLeading land-owners allowed to become responsible for revenue assessed on an estate (see paragraph 17).
SailabFlooded or kept permanently moist by river.
SailabaSame as sailab (q.v.).
SairMiscellaneous income derived from an estate by its owners over and above the profits fo cultivation (see paragraph 356).
SanadA deed of grant.
SarakRoad.
SarsahiA measure of area (See paragraph 243).
Sarsari partsAn all-round rate on cultivation without discrimination of soils or classes of land.
SawaniCropped only in the autumn harvest.
SayarSee sair.
SerA measure of weight, 1/40th of maund.
SeriGrant of land made by pathan Chief to me who helped him with their swords or their prayers.
SermaniA fee of one ser in the mauud of produce paid in recognition of proprietary title.
Shahjahani bighaSee bigha.
ShahnahriIrrigated from a canal owned by the State.
ShajraMap, plan.
Shajra kishtwarVillage common land.
ShikastBroken.
ShoraSaltpetre.
SihaddaMasonry pillar or platform erected at point where boundaries of three villages meet.
SilhdarSame as chakdar (q.v.).
Sir jagirLand owned by jagirdat in an estate of which the revenue is assigned to him.
Sir-o-paFee paid to proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).
SiwaiCesses also same as sair (q.v.).

T

TafrikDistribution of revenue over holdings.
Tahrij asamiwarAbstract of khatauni showing tenants, holdings with their areas and rents; but without details of fields (see paragraph 270).
TehsilA sub-division of a district, charge of Tehsildar.
TehsildarOfficial in chief executive charge of a Tehsil.
TakaviLoan granted by Government to a land-owner for agricultural purposes.
TalukdarA superior proprietor (see paragraphs 103, 143 and 145).
TaraddadkarA class of tenant in jhang (see paragraph 211).
TarafA sub-division of an estate.
Tarika paimaishNote of method of suvey (Appendix XXI).
TarmimCorrection.
TawaniA class of tenant in Kohat
ThanaPolice Station or the jurisdiction of a police Station (see paragraph 579).
Tahana pattiMarriage fee levied by proprietors of village from other residents (See paragraph 94).
ThokA sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).
ThulaA sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).

V

VeshPeriodical redistribution of land among proprietors (see paragraph 158).

W

Wajib-ul-arzVillage administration paper (see paragraphs 295-296-A and Appendix VIII).
WarisLandholder (see paragraphs 152, 175, 178 and 197-A).
WarisiRight of the waris (q.v.).
WaterLine.
WirsanaFee paid in recognition of proprietary title.

Z

ZabtiCash rents levied on account of certain crops.
ZailA group of estates out of which some representative man is appointed zaildar.
ZaildarA man of influence appointed to have charge of a zail.
ZamindarLand-owner.
ZamindariA form of village tenure (see paragraph 136).
Zamindari bighaSee bigha.
Zari-I-ZaghaFund formed out of commutation paid by persons who do not perform the chher (q.v.) labour for which they are responsible.
Zillah (zil’s)District.

 

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