Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali
Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 was much more than a peace treaty seeking to
reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of
troops and an exchange of PoWs). It was a comprehensive blue print for good
neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan. Under the Simla Agreement both
countries undertook to abjure conflict and confrontation which had mamed
relations in the past, and to work towards the establishment of durable peace,
friendship and cooperation.
Agreement contains a set of guiding principles, mutually agreed to by India and
Pakistan, which both sides would adhere to while managing relations with each
other. These emphasize: respect for each other’s territorial integrity and
sovereignty; noninterference in each other’s internal affairs; respect for each
others unity, political independence; sovereign equality; and abjuring hostile
propaganda. The following principles of the Agreement are, however, particularly
commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral
To build the
foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people
To uphold the
inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most
important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
faithfully observed the Simla Agreement in the conduct of its relations with
Bilateral Relations Between The Government of India and The Government of
of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two counties put
an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their
relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship
and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent, so that both
countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing
talk of advancing the welfare of their peoples.
2.In order to
achieve this objective, the Government of hrdia and the Government of Pakistan
have agreed as follows:---
o That the
principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the
relations between the two countries;
o That the
two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through
bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon
between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the
two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both
shall prevent the organization, assistance or encouragement of any acts
detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations;
o That the
pre-requisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness and durable peace between
them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for
each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each
other’s integral affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit;
o That the
basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedevilled the relations between
the two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
o That they
shall always respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity,
political independence and sovereign equality;
o That in
accordance with the Charter of the United Nations they will refrain from the
threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political
independence of each other.
Governments will take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda
directed against each other. Both countries will encourage the dissemination of
such information as would promote the development of friendly relations between
progressively to restore and normalize relations between the two countries step
by step, it was agreed that;
shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land
including border posts, and air links including over flights.
Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals
of the other country.
o Trade and
co-operation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as
in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
connection delegations from the two countires will meet from time to time to
work out the necessary details.
5. In order to
initiate the process of the establishment of durable peace, both the Governments
Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the
o In Jammu
and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire of December 17,
1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized
position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally,
irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further
undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this
withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be
completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their
respective constitutional procedures, and will come into force with effect from
the date on which the hrstraiments of Ratification are exchanged.
Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again at a mutually
convenient time in the future and that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of
the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for
the establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations, including the
questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final
settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.
Ali Bhutto) President Islamic Republic of Pakistan