Ordinance  No. V of 2000

[7th February, 2000]

An Ordinance to provide for the establishment of Bahria University at Islamabad

WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the establishment of Bahria University at Islamabad and to provide for the matters connected therewith or incidental thereto;

AND WHEREAS the National Assembly and the Senate stand suspended in pursuance of the Proclamation of Emergency of the fourteenth day of October, 1999, and the Provisional Constitution Order No. 1 as amended;

AND WHEREAS the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary to take immediate action;

NOW, THEREFORE, in pursuance of Proclamation of the fourteenth day of October, 1999, and Provisional Constitution Order No. l of 1999, as amended, as well as Order No.9 of 1999, and in exercise of all powers enabling him in that behalf, the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is pleased to make and promulgate the following Ordinance:—

1. Short title and commence­ment.—(1) This Ordinance may be called the Bahria University Ordinance, 2000.

(2)   It shall come into force at once.

2. Definitions. In this Ordinance, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,—

(a) “Academic Council” means, the Academic Council of the University constituted under section 19;

(b) “affiliated institution” means an educational institution authorised by the Board to conduct academic programmes approved by the University;

(c) “authority” means any of the authorities of the University specified in section 15;

(d) “Board” means the Board of Governors of the University constituted under section 16;

(e) “Chancellor” means the Chancellor of the University;

(f) “Constituent Units” means the Bahria Institutes of Management and Computer Sciences at Islamabad and Karachi, the Pakistan Naval Academy, Manora, Karachi, the Pakistan Navy War College, Lahore, the institute of Professional Psychology, Karachi, the Bahria Colleges at Islamabad and Karachi the faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences and includes any other faculty or college instituted by the Board or any other unit established by, or on the authority of, the Board;

(g) “Committee” means the Executive Committee of the University constituted under section 18;

(h) “head” means the head of a college or institution under the University by whatever name or designation;

(i) “institute” means a teaching unit of the University;

(j) “prescribed” means prescribed by Regulations, Rules or Statutes;

(k) “Pro-Chancellor” means the Pro-Chancellor appointed under section 8;

(l) “Rector” means the Rector of the University appointed under section 9;

(m) “Registrar” means the Registrar of the University;

(n) “Regulations, Rules and Statutes” means Regulations, Rules and Statutes made or deemed to have been made under this Ordinance; and

(o) “University” means the Bahria University established under this Ordinance.

3. Establishment and incorporation of the University.—(1) There shall be established a University to be called the Bahria University Islamabad consisting of—

(i) the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor, the Rector, the Registrar, the Directors;

(ii) the Governing bodies of the Constituent Units by whatever names called;

(iii) members of such other councils, committees and advisory bodies as the Board may establish or authorize from time to time;

(iv) the members of the faculties and students of the colleges and Constituent Units; and

(v) such other officers and members of the staff as may be specified by the Board from time to time.

(2) The University shah be a body corporate by the name of the Bahria University Islamabad having perpetual succession and a common seal, with power, among others, to acquire, hold and dispose of any property and shall by the said name sue and be sued.

(3) The principal seat of the University shall be at Islamabad, and it may set up any number of colleges and institutes at such places in Pakistan as the Board may determine.

4. Purposes, powers and functions of the University.—(1) The purposes of the University shall be the promotion and dissemination of knowledge and technology and to provide for instruction, training, research, demonstration and service in such branches of learning as the Board may deem fit.

(2) The University shall be a fully autonomous body with freedom to govern its academic and administrative functions in order to achieve its objectives in general and in particular freedom to—

(a) determine courses of study in management sciences, computer sciences, information and communication technology, professional psychology, naval sciences, war and strategic studies, earth and environmental sciences and such other disciplines as it may determine;

(b) determine courses of study at the undergraduate level in its constituent units where applicable as well as in its affiliated institutions;

(c) select and examine students;

(d) award degrees, diplomas, certificates and other academic distinctions

(e) pursue and co-ordinate research;

(f) affiliate itself or associate with other institutions and establish faculties in Pakistan or abroad for better discharge of its functions and responsibilities;

(g) decide teaching methods and strategies in order to ensure the most effective educational and research programmes;

(h) use the financial and other resources allocated to it for the execution of its functions;

(i) confer in the manner prescribed honorary degrees or other distinctions on persons approved by the Board for the purpose;

(j) confer degrees on persons who have carried on independent research under prescribed conditions;

(k) provide for such instructions for persons not being students of the University as it may determine and grant certificates and diplomas to such persons;

(l) accept the examinations passed, and the periods of study spent, by students of the University at other universities and places of learning as equivalent lo such examinations and periods of study in the University as it may determine, and to withdraw such acceptance;

(m) institute professorships, associate professorships, assistant professorships, lectureships, research associateships and other posts, and to make appointments thereto;

(n) create posts for teaching, research, administration and other related purposes and to appoint persons thereto;

(o) institute and award fellowships, scholarships, bursaries, medals and prizes under prescribed conditions;

(p) establish institutes, faculties, libraries, laboratories, workshops, museums and other centres of learning for the development of teaching and research and make such arrangements for their maintenance, management and administration as it may determine;

(q) make provision for research and advisory services and with these objectives to enter into arrangements with other institutions or with public bodies within Pakistan and abroad under prescribed conditions;

(r) enter into, carry out, vary or cancel contracts;

(s) receive and manage property transfers and grants, bequests, trusts, gifts, donations, endowments and other contributions made to it and invest any funds representing such property, grants, bequests, trusts, gifts, donations, endowments or contributions and convert one kind of property into another, in such manner as it may deem fit;

(t) provide for the printing and publication of research and other works;

(u) authorise and agree when warranted by the circumstances to the mobility of qualified staff among universities, research organizations and the Government or corporate bodies, provided that the rights and privileges of the staff under this arrangement shall be protected; and

(v) do all such other acts and things, whether incidental to the powers aforesaid or not, as may be required in order to further its objectives as a place of education, learning and research.

(3) The principal teaching facilities of the University shall be in the Constituent Units and such other colleges and institutes as may be determined by the Board from time to time.

(4) Academic activities, examinations and syllabi at the colleges and institutes referred to in sub-section (3) shall be in conformity with such conditions as the University may prescribe.

(5) The University may, with the approval of the Board, provide facilities to the representatives of the University Grants Commission and the Pakistan Navy or such relevant organizations for visitation to enable them to verify and ensure that appropriate academic standards are being maintained by it.

5. University open to all classes, creeds etc. The University shall be open to all persons of either sex without prejudice of religion race, class, creed, colour or domicile who qualify for admission for the courses of study offered by it based on the criteria and policy determined by the Board, and no such person shall be denied the privileges of the University on the ground of sex, religion, race, class, creed, colour or domicile.

6. Officers of the University. The following shall be the officers of the University, namely:—

(a) the Chancellor;

(b) the Pro-Chancellor;

(c) the Rector;

(d) the Registrar;

(e) the Director of Examinations and Academic Affairs;

(f) the Director Finance;

(g) the Director of Research and Development;

(h) Heads of Constituent Units and Faculties; and

(i) such other persons as may be prescribed to be officers by the Board.

7. Chancellor.—(1) The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan shall be the Chancellor of the University.-

(2) The Chancellor shall preside over the convocations of the University and meetings at which his presence is desirable in the light of the business being transacted.

(3) In the absence of the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor or the Rector shall preside at convocation of the University.

(4) Every proposal to confer an honorary degree shall be subject to confirmation by the Chancellor.

(5) If the Chancellor is satisfied that the proceedings or orders of any authority are not in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance, the statutes, regulations or the rules, he may, after calling upon such authority to show cause in writing, annual such proceedings or orders.

8. Pro-Chancellor.—(1) The Chancellor shall appoint an educationist of repute as Pro-Chancellor for such period and on such terms and conditions as he may determine.

(2) The Pro-Chancellor shall act for the Chancellor at any time when the office of the Chancellor is vacant, or the Chancellor is absent or is unable to perform the functions of his office due to any cause.

(3) The Pro-Chancellor shall perform such other functions as may be entrusted to him by the Chancellor.

9. Rector.—(1) The Board shall appoint an educationist of good repute and experience as Rector to ensure the disciplined educational environment visualized for the University.

(2) The Rector shall hold office for a term of three years and shall be eligible for reappointment for a similar term or such shorter period on such terms and conditions as the Board may determine.

(3) The Rector shall be the chief executive of the University in all fields of academics and administration, and shall have overall responsibility for the direction, organization, administration and programmes of the University in accordance with the guidelines and general policies formulated by the Board and for the implementation of the decisions and policies of the Board and shall, without prejudice to the provisions of section 4,—

(a) oversee, monitor and supervise all academic activities, including examinations and applied research to ensure that proper academic standards are maintained;

(b) exercise administrative control over the academic and administrative staff employed by the University including their recruitment;

(c) submit the plans of work and budget estimates of the University for the approval of the Board;

(d) direct the activities connected with execution of programmes for instruction, training, research, demonstration and service, and authorize expenditure   provided for in the budget as approved by the Board;

(e) make appointments to academic and non-academic positions that he has been authorized in accordance with the policies and procedures approved by the Board so as to ensure the highest intellectual and moral qualities in the persons appointed;

(f) appoint, subject to approval of the Board, on contract, teachers, officers and members of staff of the University and such other persons as may be necessary for a period not exceeding two years;

(g) submit to the Board, in accordance with the rules of procedure framed by it, reports on the activities of the University and the execution of the plans of works;

(h) prepare and revise from time to time statutes and regulations with the approval of the Board for the efficient and effective operations of the University; and

(k) provide necessary assistance to the Board in its functioning.

10. Registrar. The Registrar shall be mainly responsible for the maintenance of University records, student affairs and administration and in addition, he may be entrusted with other responsibilities by the Board of Governors, the Executive Committee or the Rector as considered appropriate and necessary.

11. Director of Examinations and academic affairs. There shall be a Director examinations and academic affairs who shall deal with all matters concerning examinations and coordination with constituent and affiliated institutions and shall be responsible for policy making, coordinating and overseeing all activities relating to academics, research and development.
12. Director Finance. The Director Finance shall be mainly responsible for the proper and judicious management of the University funds received from various sources in accordance with the policies laid by the Board of Governors.
13. Director (Research and Development). There shall be a Director (Research and Development) who shall be responsible for providing guidelines and coordinating all arrangements for research and development activities in the University and its Constituent Units. He shall also perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Rector.
14. Heads of Constituent Units. The Heads of Constituent Units shall be appointed in the manner and on the terms and conditions prescribed who shall, in addition to their positions as academic heads, abide by the academic rules and requirements of syllabi, conduct of examinations etc; prescribed by the University and perform their duties as executive heads of their respective institutions.

15.Authorities. The following shall be the authorities of the University, namely:—

(a) the Board of Governors;

(b) the Executive Committee;

(c) the Academic Council;

(d) the faculty Board of Studies;

(e) the Selection Board;

(f) the Finance and Planning Committee;

(g) governing bodies of Constituent Units by whatever name called; and

(h) such other authorities as may be prescribed.

16. Board of Governors.—(1) The general supervision and control of the affairs of the University and the powers to lay down the policies shall vest in the Board of Governors consisting of—

(i) the Chief of the Naval Staff who shall be the ex-officio Chairman of the Board;

(ii) the Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Training and Personnel);

(iii) Principal staff officers or administrative authorities as approved by the Chairman of the Board;

(iv) the Rector;

(v) Chairman, University Grants Commission, or his nominee not below the rank of a whole-time member;

(vi) Secretary, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, or his nominee not below the rank of Joint Secretary;

(vii) Secretary, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, or his nominee not below the rank of Joint Secretary;

(viii) Secretary, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan, or his nominee not below the rank of Joint Secretary;

(ix) Vice Chancellor or Rector of a recognized Pakistani University nominated by the Chancellor for a period of two years;

(x) Director Naval Educational Services, NHQ Islamabad;

(xi) the Heads of Constituent Units ;

(xii) two nominees from the industrial or financial sector nominated by the Board of Governors for a period of two years;

(xiii) two renowned educationists as approved by the Chairman of the Board; and

(xiv) Deans Faculty of Arts and Sciences of the Bahria Institutes.

(2) Registrar will be the member and shall act as Secretary of the Board but shall not be entitled to vote.

(3) The Chancellor may, in consultation with the Board, appoint any other person, including a scientist or educationist, as members of the Board.

(4) The Board may direct any officer, member of faculty or any other person to be in attendance during all or any of its meetings.

(5) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), the Board shall exercise the powers and perform the functions hereinafter specified, namely:—

(a) to hold, control and administer the property, funds and resources of the University and to borrow or raise money for the purposes of the University upon such security as may be required;

(b) to formulate or approve the principles, policies and plans governing the activities and operations of the University so as to ensure that the academic staff enjoys academic freedom in their research and educational work;

(c) to prepare or have prepared and revised from time to time rules and regulations for the efficient and effective operation of the University;

(d) to review and approve the creation of any standing component of the University, such as faculties, and councils and other administrative bodies necessary to assist or improve the working of the University;

(e) to approve the plans of work and annual budget of the University submitted by the Director Finance which shall include the budgets of constituent institutions and colleges;

(f) to require and consider reports submitted by the officers of the University relating to the activities of the University and the execution of the plans of work and to direct the Rector to submit reports relating to any matter specified by the Board;

(g) to create such academic or administrative posts as it may consider necessary for the purposes of the University and to approve appointments recommended by the Selection Board and such of these posts as it may specify, including the posts of deans, directors, professors, associate professors, assistant professors, lecturers and demonstrators;

(h) to approve selection and appointment of all administrative and academic staff of the University made by the person or body authorised to make the appointment;

(i) to fix scales of pay, allowances and honoraria for all the staff, both academic and administrative recommended by the governing bodies of Constituent Units commensurate with their qualifications and experience, in order to attract the best talent from within and outside Pakistan for the University;

(j) to fix the scales of pay, allowances and honoraria of the academic and non-academic employees deployed in the headquarters of the University;

(k) to undertake responsibility for the financial integrity of the University, including responsibility for ensuring effectiveness of its future operations and their continuity and the preservation of the autonomy of the University;

(l) to approve all affiliations and other similar arrangements through which colleges, institutions or individuals may become associated with the University within Pakistan and abroad;

(m) to appoint from amongst its members such Committees or sub-committees as may in the opinion of the Board lead to its more efficient and effective operation; and

(n) to approve the recommendations of governing bodies of constituent units submitted to it for the purpose and to take all such initiatives as it may consider necessary or desirable for the efficient and effective management and functioning of the University.

(6)  The Board shall lay down its own rules of procedure.

(7) The Board may delegate all or any of its powers and functions to a committee, sub-committee, the Rector or any other officer.

17. Meetings of the Board etc.—(1) The Board shall meet at least twice during a year for regular or scheduled meetings and may meet at any other time at which a special meeting thereof may be called by the Chairman of the Board.

(2) Not less than ten clear days” notice of a special meeting shall be given to the members of the Board and the agenda of the meeting shall be restricted to the matters specified in the agenda to be annexed to such notice.

(3) The quorum for a meeting of the Board shall not be less than fifty per cent of its members.

18. Executive Committee. —(1) The Executive Committee shall comprise the following, namely:—

(i) the Rector, who shall be the Chairman of the Executive Committee;

(ii) a nominee of the Board of Governors;

(iii) a nominee of the University Grants Commission not below the rank of a B-20 officer;

(iv) a nominee of the Ministry of Education not below the rank of a B-19 officer;

(v) a nominee of the Directorate of Naval Educational Services;

(vi) heads of the Constituent Units whose presence is essential in the light of the agenda; and

(vii) the Registrar who shall act as Secretary of the Committee.

(2) The Executive Committee shall deliberate on various aspects related to the functioning of the University and recommend specific measures to the Board for approval and shall in particular,—

(a) delineate priorities for research;

(b) recommend allocation of training and research funds to the Colleges and Institutes;

(c) guide and direct the Academic Council and the Faculty Board of Studies of each college, and institute on all matters relating to academics, including syllabi and duration of various courses;

(d) recommend disciplines for all academic studies in the colleges and institutes and help in creation of necessary infrastructure for the same;

(e) help induct highly competent scientific and technical talent into the faculty of each constituent unit to enhance the quality of education and research;

(f) prescribe guidelines for proper and efficient conduct of professional examinations at the constituent and affiliated institutions;

(g) recommend such measures which would foster and enhance interaction and collaboration between the University and the existing national and international organizations, institutions and research centres and the industrial base;

(h) recommend apportioning of the national research and development budget for the University;

(i) deliberate on, and propose, affiliation measures with foreign institutions of repute;

(j) decide methods and strategies in order to ensure the most effective scientific and technological programmes;

(k) coordinate with relevant Government Ministries, Universities and the University Grants Commission;

(l) propose Statutes to the Board for approval; and

(m) prepare regulations for approval by the Board.

19. Academic Council.—(1) There shall be an Academic Council, headed by the Rector, to lay down academic policies to further the objectives and functions of the University for the maintenance of the excellence of its academic programmes.

(2) Heads of all Constituent Units and teachers of the rank of professor shall be members of the Academic Council in addition to two eminent scholars nominated for a period of two years by the Board. The Director of Examinations and Academic Affairs shall act as Secretary of the Academic Council which shall frame its own rules of business.

(3) The Academic Council shall act as an advisory as well as an implementing body for the decisions of the Executive Committee on all matters relating to the conduct of examinations, revision and updating of courses syllabi, quality of education and duration of all courses including conduct of postgraduate classes in specified disciplines.

(4) The Academic Council shall also help the Rector in evaluating the performance of constituent and affiliated institutions and recommending measures for improvement.

20. Faculty Board of Studies.—(1) The Faculty Board of Studies of each Constituent Unit shall consist of the members appointed by the governing body of the each unit which shall also prescribe the tenure of office of the members.

(2) The Faculty Board of Studies shall—

(i) implement the decisions of the Board, the Executive Committee and the Academic Council on all matters relating to academic standards, examinations and research;

(ii) ensure feedback of the implemented measures on research and academic matters to the Rector; and

(iii) work out and report to the Rector details of funding required for research.

21. Selection Board.—(1) The Selection Board shall be responsible for conducting interviews and organizing tests for appointment determined to be in its purview by the Board including all academic positions.

(2) The Selection Board shall comprise the following, namely:—

(i) the Rector who shall be its Chairman ;

(ii) two subject experts in the subject concerned drawn from a list approved by the Board but not serving in the University or its Constituent Units. In the case of position of Associate Professor and Professor the experts must be those to whom the research documents of candidates have been sent for assessment;

(iii) the whole-time member of the University Grants Commission or his nominee;

(iv) a nominee of the Directorate Naval Educational Services, NHQ, Islamabad;

(v) the senior most teacher in the subject for which the interview is being conducted drawn from the Constituent Unit in which appointment is to be made. In the case of non-academic positions the senior most officer in the area in which appointment is to be made;

(vi) the head of the Constituent Unit where the appoint­ment is to be made; and

(vii) Registrar who shall act as Secretary of the Selection Board.

22. Governing Bodies for Constituent Units.—(1) The University may set up a separate governing body for each Constituent Unit consisting of such persons as it may determine. The Registrar shall be ex-qfflcio member of the Governing body of constituent unit.

(2) The members of the existing bodies shall continue to operate with suitable representation from the University headquarters subject to ratification by the Board in its first meeting and shall consist of suitably qualified persons appointed by the Board of Governors.

(3) The business, of the governing bodies shall be regulated by the Board as may be prescribed.

23. Finance and Planning Committee. There shall be a Finance and Planning Committee which shall—

(a) be responsible to make all financial policies and financial rules for the University;

(b) approve annual budget estimates of Constituent Units and the University;

(c) submit to the Board an annual statement regarding the performance of the constituent units; and

(d) make recommendations to the Board for approval of the audited statement of accounts.

24. Academic and non-academic employees. The Academic and non-academic employees of the University, including its Constituent Units, shall be selected with a view to achieving its objectives and the basic criteria for their selection shall be the highest standards of competence, integrity and proficiency.

25. Statutes.(1) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, Statutes may be made to regulate or prescribe all or any of the following matters, namely,-

(a) creation of institutes and faculties;

(b) service, pension and fringe benefits for the University employees (including those in its Constituent Units) and terms and conditions of their service;

(c) conditions for appointment of Professors Emeritus and award of honorary degrees;

(d) efficiency and discipline of the University employees; and

(e) all other matters required to be regulated by Statutes.

(2) Draft Statutes shall be proposed by the Executive Committee for approval by the Board which may approve or refer them back for reconsideration.

(3) No Statute shall be valid until it has been approved by the Board.

(4) Statutes that are already in operation shall be ratified by the Board and shall not be altered to the disadvantage of the employees being governed under statutes, rules and regulations made earlier which shall be deemed to be Statutes, Rules and Regulations made under this Ordinance.

26. Regulations.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance and the Statutes, the Committee may make regulations for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(a) scheme of studies and research, including the duration of courses, number of subjects or papers for examinations;

(b) syllabi and courses of study and research programmes leading to degrees, diplomas or certificates;

(c) methodology for selection and admission of students;

(d) conduct and supervision of examinations, appoint­ment of examiners and scrutiny and tabulation of results;

(e) determination of fees and other charges for admission to various courses;

(f) maintenance of discipline among students and schemes for their welfare;

(g) institution of fellowships, scholarships, prizes and medals, honorarium and other financial assistance to students and research scholars;

(h) conduct of convocations and the manner in which they are to be conducted; and

(i) all other academic matters which are to be or may be prescribed by regulations.

(2) The regulations shall be approved by the Board on the recommendation of the Committee.

 (3)  No regulation shall be valid until it has been approved by the Board.

27. Rules. The Executive Committee may make Rules for Implementation of Statutes or Regulations where so required under the Statutes or Regulations or make Rules to regulate any matter relating to the affairs of the University which under this Ordinance are not specifically required to be provided for by the Statutes or the Regulations.
28. University funds, audit and accounts.—(1) The University shall have a fund to which shall be credited all direct donations, trusts, bequests, endowments, grants, proportionate budget from the Government, assistance from  international agencies, contributions, shares of fee and income from any other sources and which shall be under the control of the Board.

(2)  The Constituent Units shall be financed from the following sources, namely:—

(a) annual budgets from their respective service headquarters or ministries;

(b) proportionate share of fees, including examination fees through the University budget;

(c) any grants from the Government;

(d) any sale of royalties or publications; and

(e) any assistance from the University Fund as decided by the Board.

(3) Capital and recurring expenditures of the University shall be met from the allocation made by the Board out of the University Fund.

(4) No contribution, donation or grant which may directly or indirectly involve any immediate or subsequent financial liability for the University, or which may involve an activity not included in its programmes for the time being, shall be accepted without prior approval of the Board.

(5) The accounts of the University shall be maintained in such form and manner as may be determined by the Board and shall be audited each year within six months of the closing of the financial year of the University by the Controller of Naval Accounts audit team or a Chartered Accountant appointed by the Board.

(6) The accounts, together with the report of the auditor thereon, shall be submitted to the Board for approval.

(7) The auditor’s report shall certify that the auditor has complied with the standards of audit and certification laid down by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan.


29. Indemnity and bar of jurisdiction.—(1) No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against any person or authority for anything which is in good faith done under this Ordinance.

(2) No decision taken, or act or thing done, by the Chancellor, the Rector or the Board shall be called in question before any court or other authority.

30. Retirement and re­employment. An officer, teacher or other employee of the University shall retire from service on attaining the age of sixty years or as

Provided in the terms of appointment and on retirement may be employed in the manner prescribed by the Board on contract in specially deserving cases.

Explanation.—In this section ‘competent authority’ means the appointing authority or a person duly authorised by the appointing authority in that behalf, not being a person lower in rank to the officer, teacher or other employee concerned.

31. Pension, insurance, gratuity, provident fund and benevolent fund.—(1) The University shall constitute for the benefit of its officers, teachers and other employees in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed such pension, insurance, gratuity, provident fund and benevolent fund or other welfare schemes as it may deem fit.

(2) Benefits in the areas referred to above that are already in operation shall continue to remain in force and shall not be altered to the disadvantage of the beneficiaries who shall be given the option to continue to be governed by its provisions or those that are framed under the provisions of this Ordinance.

(3) The provisions of the Provident Fund Act, 1925, (XIX of 1925) where any provident fund is or has been constituted shall apply to such fund as if it were the Government Provident Fund.

32. Opportunity to show cause. Except as otherwise provided, no officer, teacher or other employee of the University holding a permanent post shall be reduced in rank, or removed or compulsorily retired from service, unless he has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the action proposed to be taken.

33. Appeal to, and review by, the Board.—(1) Where an order is passed punishing any officer (other than the Rector), teacher or other employee of the University or altering or interpreting to his disadvantage the prescribed terms or conditions of his service, he shall, where the order is passed by the Rector or any other officer or teacher of the University, have the right to appeal to the Board against the order, and, where the order is made by the Board have the right to apply to that authority for review of the said order.

(2) The appeal or application for review shall be submitted to the Registrar who shall place it before the Board with the views of the Rector.

(3) No order on an appeal or application for review shall be passed without affording to the appellant or applicant, as the case may be, an opportunity of being heard.

34. Commencement of term or office of members of authorities. The term of office of a newly appointed or nominated person on a body or authority shall be as fixed under this Ordinance and shall commence from such date as may be prescribed.

35. Filling of casual vacancies in authorities. Any casual vacancy among the appointed or nominated member of any authority shall be filled, as soon as conveniently may be, by the person or the body who appointed or nominated the member whose place has become vacant and the person appointed or nominated to the vacancy shall be a member of such authority for the residue of the term for which the person whose place he fills would have been a member.

36. Filling of vacancies in authorities in certain circumstances. Where a vacancy in the membership of an authority other than the Board cannot be filled because—

(a) the office of which the holder, was a member of the authority ex-officio having ceased to exist;

(b) the organization, institution or other body, other than the University having either ceased to exist or to function; or

(c) the occurrence of other circumstances in which it has become impracticable to fill the vacancy, the vacancy shall be filled in such manner as the Board may direct; and

(d) vacancies in the membership of the Board of Governors that may have been caused for reasons mentioned in the foregoing sub-clauses of this section shall be filled in the manner as the Chancellor may determine.

37. Disputes about membership of authorities etc. A person nominated or appointed to any authority shall cease to be a member of such authority as soon as he ceases to hold the position by virtue of which he was nominated or appointed.

38. Proceedings of authorities not invalidated by vacancies. No act, proceedings, resolution or decision of any authority shall be invalid by reason only of any vacancy in, or any defect in the constitution of, or in the appointment or nomination of any member of the authority.
39. Interpretation. Any question that may arise as to the interpretation of any of the provisions of the Ordinance shall be placed before the Board whose decision thereon will be final.

40. Removal of difficulties. if any difficulty arises in giving effect to any provision of this Ordinance, the Board may make such order or direction, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Ordinance, as may appear to it to be necessary for the purpose of removing such difficulty.