(From Punjab Settlement manual)


Abadi deh Inhabited site of village.
Abi Watered by lift from tanks, pools, marshes, or streams.
Abiana An assessment levied in addition to the assessment at unirrigated rates on account of the advantage derived from irrigation (Paragraph 61).
Abwab Cesses.
Adhlapi A man who by sinking a well in another man’s land acquires ownership in half of the land attached to the well (paragraph 173).
Adna malik Inferior owner.
Ahtrafi A cess paid by artisance to the village proprietors.
Ala lambardar Chief lambardar (Headman).
Ala malik. Superior owner.
Amin Surveyor employed for making village maps.
Ang Cess on cattle levied by proprietors on other residents in village for grazing in village waste.
Anwanda Clearing tenant in Dera Ghazi Khan (See note, page 107 of Settlement manual).
Asami Tenant (in old settlement literature the term is sometimes confined to a resident tenant).


Bachh Distribution of revenue over holdings.
Badastur Ledger.
Bahi Unaltered.
Bajra A kind of millet (Pennisetum typhodeum).
Bakhra Share (in Pathan tracts).
Banda Hamlet (in Pathan tracts).
Bangar Upland tract.
Banjar Uncultivated land.
Bania Village’s shopkeeper, money-lender.
Banjar Uncultivated land.
Banjar kadim New fallow (for all explanation see paragraph 267).
Banjar kadim Old fallow (for full explanation see paragraph 267).
Barani Dependent on rainfall.
Batai Rent taken by division of crop.
Batta A form of village tenure (see paragraph 139).
Bhaichara Sub-number (paragraph 271).
Bhoang Due paid harvest by harvest to a godkesh tenant (note on page 107).
Bhunga Cess on cattle levied by proprietors on other residents in a village for grazing in village waste.
Bhur Sand.
Bigha A measure of area. In the Western Punjab the bigha is half a ghumao, in the east the shahjahani bigha is five-eighths of an acre and the zamindari or kacha bigha five-twenty fourths of an acre. The actual bigha used by the Zamindari does not always correspond with the kacha bigha used in settlement surveys (see paragraph 243).
Bir A preserve.
Bisa One-twentieth of a bigha (q. v).
Biswi A fee paid in recognition of property right.
Biswansi One-twentieth of a bigha (q.v).
Burji A survey pillar.
Butemar A tenant who has acquired permanent rights in the land by clearing it of jangal.


 Chaharam A grant of one-fourth of the ruler’s share of the produce to an individual or family of influence.
 Chah Well; well-holding.
 Chahi Irrigated from a well.
 Chahi khalis Irrigated only from a well as distinguished from chahi-narhi (q.v) or chahi-sailab.
 Chahi-nahri Irrigated partly from a well and partly from canal.
 Chak Assessment circle, a block of land.
 Chakbat Applied to a patti or sub-division of an estate which has all its land lying in one block (see Khetbat).
Chakdar Inferior owner (in South-West Punjab). For full explanation, (see paragraph 168).
 Chakla Assessment circle.
 Chakota Lump grain rent or rent consisting of a fixed amount of grain in the rabi, and a fixed amount of cash in the kharif harvest (see paragraph 312).
 Chapparband A term for a resident (see tenant paragraph 196) entitled to permanent occupation at a fixed rate of rent (see paragraph 197).
 Chari A kind of millet (q.v) grown for fodder (see jowar).
 Chaudhri Rural notable.
Chaukidar Village watchman.
Chela Supiritual son or pupil.
Chhambh A marsh.
Chhar A system of silt clearance under which the clearance is effected by the irrigators themselves (see paragraph 449).
Chundavand A custom of inheritance under which several sons by one wife inherit the same share as a single son by another wife (see pagvand).


Daftri Owner in pathan tracts (see paragraph 157).
Dak Post.
Dakar Stiff clay soil.
Darbar Council or other governing body in a Native State.
Darkhwast Mal Tender of engagement to pay the land revenue.
Duzari …. Assessment.
Darya River.
Dastur-ul-amal Hand-book for the guidance of district revenue officers in carrying out of the provisions of the settlement.
Daul Estimate of revenue payable by different estates (see paragraph 16).
Daulp Ridge.
Dharat Weighment fee; levied on sales of produce within village (see paragraph 94).
Dhenkli A hand-lever well.
Dhok Hamlet.
Doab Country lying between two rivers.
Dohli Death-bed gift of a small plot of land to a Brahman.


Ekfasli Yielding one crop in each agricultural year.


Fakir Religious mendicant.
Fard Ranngazi. List of fields for colouring purposes.


Gharldakhilkar Tenant-at-will.
Ghair Maurasi Tenant-at-will.
Ghairmumkin Barren.
Ghi Clarified butter.
Ghumao A measure of area (see paragraph 243).
Girdawar Kanungo or supervisor of patwaris (Paragraph 292-A).
Girdawari Harvest inspection.
Godkesh Tenant in Multan who has acquired a permanent title by breaking up waste (note on page 107).
Gora Land close to a village site which is often heavily manured.
Gosha Corner.
Got Sub-division of a tribe.
Guru Spiritual father or guide.


Hakimi hissa The ruler’s share of the produce.
Hakk buha Dorr tax; a cess levied by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).
Hakkdar A tenant entitled to permanent occupation at a fixed rate of rent (see paragraph 197).
Hamsayas Dependents occupying outlying hamlets of a pathan estate on condition of assisting in repelling raids on the lands of the proprietors (see paragraph 159).
Hari Applied to land cropped only in the rabi harvest.
Hathrakhaidar A man who agreed to become responsible for payment of the revenue on condition of receiving the proprietor’s share of the produce; has less a fee paid in recognition of the owner’s proprietary title (see paragraph 172).


Ikrarnama Village administration paper, same as wajib-ul-arz.
Iliaqawar Relating to an ilaka or tract.
Inam A cash allowance paid to secure the services of a man of influence.
Inamdar The holder of an inam (q.v)
Ismi A proprietary fee.


Jadid See banjar jaded. Also a class of tenant ( see paragraph 196).
Jagir An assignmen of land revenue.
Jagirdar Holder of an assignment of land-revenue.
Jama Land revenue demand.
Jamabandi Register of holdings of owners and tenants showing land held by each and amounts payable as rent, land revenue, and cesses.
Jamai A class of tenant (see paragraph 196).
Jangal Uncultivated land covered with brushwood and small trees.
Jhalar A Persian-wheel by which water is raised from a stream or canal.
Jahalari Irrigated by jhalar (q.v).
Jhil A sheet of water.
Jhuri Fee paid to proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).
Jinswar Relating to crops, also the crop statement for any particular harvest.
Jowar A kind of millet (Sorghum Vulgare).


Kabza Possession.
Kacha Incomplete or imperfect, applied to village measures of area and weights as distinguished from those recognised by Government; not lined with masonry (of a well).
Kacha asami Term used for a tenant-at-will (see paragraph 197).
Kacha bigha See bigha.
Kacha malba The system under which the amount actually expended on the common pruposes fo a village is distributed periodically over the proprietors. To be distinguished from pakka malba (q.v).
Kachahri District court-house.
Kadam A pace (see paragraph 243).
Kadim See banjar kadim also a class of tenant (see paragraph 197).
Kadimi A class of tennat (see paragraph 198).
Kaifiyat Report note.
Kalar Barren land, also applied to reh efflorescence, and in the east of the Punjab to sour clay rice (Land kalar dahr).
Kamlana Cess paid by artisans to the proprietors of the village in which they ply their trade (see paragraph 94).
Kan Appraisement of crops, realization of landlord’s share of produce in cash after appraising its amount and value.
Kanal A measure or area (see paragraph 243).
Kania A man who appraises crops.
Kankar Lime modules.
Kankut Same as kan (q.v).
Kanungo Supervisor of patwaris.
Karam Unit of length.
Kardar Title of official in Indian State.
Karguzari Outturn of work.
Karukan Length and breadth.
Kasur Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title (see paragraph 170).
Khadir Lowlying land near river.
Khaka Rough plan.
Khalsa The Sikh commonwealth. Revenue credited to Government as contrasted with jagir (q.v.) revenues.
Khamtahsil Direct management of estate by Government.
Kharaba Portion of crop which has failed to come to maturity.
Kharach Cess realized by landlord in addition to rent (see paragraph 339).
Kharif Autumn harvest.
Khasanve Same as vesh (q.v).
Khasra List of folds, field register.
Khasra girdawari. Harvest inspection register.
Khata Holding of a tenant.
Khatauni A list of holdings of tenants. Holding slips prepared at re-measurement (see Appendix VII).
Khetbat Applied to a patti or sub-division of an estate; all the land of which does not lie in a single block (see chakbat).
Khewat A list of owners’ holdings.
Khewat-khatauni. A combined khewat and khatauni corresponding to the present jamabandi (see Paragraph 274).
Khudkasht Cultivated by the owner himself.
Khula vesh Fresh calculation of shares at time of vesh (q.v.) (See paragraph 158).
Khush-haisiyati Owner’s rate, water, or canal-advantage rate.
Killabandi (See Appendix XIV).
Kudhi-Lamini A cess on hearths realized by proprietors from other residents in a village (see paragraph 94).
Kuhmar A tenant in Dera Gazi Khan who has earned a permanent title by sinking a well (see paragraph 211).


Lakh 1,00,000.
Lakhiraj Exempt from assessment.
Lambardar Village headman.
Latha girdawari. Cloth copy of the patwari’s map (Paragraph 292 and Appendix XXI).
Lathband A tenant who acquires rights in land by embanking fields (see Paragraph 211).
Lathmar Same as lathband (q.v).
Lichh Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title (see Paragraph 169).
Lungi Fee paid to proprietor when enterin on possession of land (see paragraph 168).


Mafi Revenue free.
Mafidar The holder of an assignment of land revenue.
Mahal Estate.
Mahsul Share of produce due to sate, now share of produce taken by person who pays the revenue in money (see paragraph 170).
Mahsulkhor A kind of land revenue farmer (see paragraph 172).
Maira Sandy loam.
Mal Land Revenue
Malatar Same as hamsaya (q.v).
Malba Fund out of which common village expenses are defrayed.
Malguzar Person responsible for payment of land revenue.
Malguzari Relating to assessment assessable.
Malik Owner in Western Punjab; malik means a leading man in a section of a tribe.
Malik adna Inferior proprietor.
Malik ala Superior proprietor.
Malikana Fee paid in recogniting of proprietary title.
Malik Kabza A man who owners the land actually in his possession; but has no share in the common property of the village community (see paragraph 142).
Marla A measure of area (see paragraph 243).
Masri A small pulse.
Matyat A word used in United provinces fro a clay soil. Occupancy tenant.
Mauza Village.
Mauzawar By villages (paragraph 512).
Milan khasra An area statement abstracted from the khasra (q.v) annual area statement.
Milan rakba Annual area statement.
Milkiyat adna Inferior ownership.
Milkiyat ala Superior ownership.
Milkiyat makbuz Tenure of a malik kabza (q.v).
Min Portion.
Minhai Excluded from the assessable area.
Minjumla Part out of a whole (Instruction 3, Appendix VIII).
Mirasi A class of Landholder (See paragraph 196).
Mirasidar A class of landholder (see Paragraph 196).
Misl haqiyat Record-of- rights.
Moth A small pulse (phareoolus trilobus).
Muhtarafa Same as ahtrafi (q.v).
Mukaddim Superior proprietor (see paragraph 167), also a leading man or headman in a village community (see paragraph 115).
Makaddmi Fee paid to superior proprietor in recognition of proprietary title (see paragraph 169).
Mukarraridar A kind of occupancy tenant (see paragraph 211).
Mundhimar A man who acquires occupancy right in land by clearing it of jangal (see paragraph 211).
Munshi An Indian clerk.
Muntakhib assamiwar Statement of owners and tenants, holding with detail of fields and rent, etc.
Musavi Mapping sheet.
Mushakhsadar A farmer of the land revenue (See paragraph 172).


Nagha Commutation paid for failure to perform ehher (q.v) labour.
Nahri Irrigated from a canal.
Nahri-parts Assessment rate over and above the assessment rate or unirrigated land applied to nahri land in calculating the fixed assessment which it shall pay (see paragraph 446).
Naib-tehsildar The deputy or assistant of he Tehsildar (q.v.).
Naksha alamat List of conventional signs.
Naksha-intikal Statement of land transfers.
Naksha-lakhiraj Statement of land revenue assignments.
Naksha-thakbast Village boundary map (see paragraphs 248 and 270).
Nala Drain or watercourse.
Nautor Land brought under cultivation for the first time.
Nazim Governor of large tract in an Indian State.
Nazrana An abatement from the revenue to an estate, etc., retained by government in making a land revenue assignment to an individual.
Nazul Land, etc. which has become the property of government by escheat or failure of heirs.
Niai Manured.


Pachotra A surcharge of 5 per cent on the revenue paid to village headmen.
Pag Fee paid to proprietor on entering on possession of land and (see paragraph 168).
Pagvand A custom of inheritance under which sons by different wives inherit equal shares in land (see chundavand) the property being divided per capita.
Pahikasht A tenant who does not live in the village in which he cultivates land .
Paipath A fee paid, to a superior owner in a recognition of his proprietary title (see paragraph 169).
Pakka Complete or perfect applied to measures of weight and area recognized by government as distinguished from those used in villages; lined with masonry (of a well).
Pakka malba The system under which the amount to be collected for common village expenses in fixed at a definite percentage on the land revenue.
Pana A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).
Panahi A tenant protected from ejectment for a term, of years (See paragraph 203).
Panapalat A form of periodical distribution of a land in the Gurgaon District (see paragraph 158).
Parcha An extract from a khatauni or Jamabandi, a copy of the entry in a khatauni regarding his holding given to a right-holder at measurement (see paragraph 2, Appendix VII).
Pargana A group of estates forming a sub-division of a district or Tehsil.
Part Sirkar Government copy of the new settlement record.
Part Tehsil Tehsil copy of the settlement map (paragraph 292 and Appendix XXI).
Parta Assessment rate.
Patta Leather cover such as is used fro protecting account books by Indian shopkeepers (see Appendix VII) also deed of grant (see paragraph 152).
Patti A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128); also a well holding (see paragraph 165).
Pattidar A form of village tenure (see paragraphs 137 and 138).
Patwari A village accountant or registrar.
Puchh-bakri A cess on marriage levied by proprietors from other resides in a village (see paragraph 94).


Rabi Spring harvest.
Raiyat Tenant.
Raiyatwari A form of settlement in which the occupant of each holdings is under a separate engagement with Government, as distinguished from the village settlement in force in North-Western area.
Rakh A preserve.
Rangsaz A colourist.
Rassa-Buti A form of tenure in riverain estates in Sialko (see note on page 72).
Rastah Pathway.
Rausli A loam soil.
Riwaj-I-am Record of customs followed by the chief tribes in a district in the matter of marriage, inheritance, etc. (see paragraphs 561—567).
Ret Sand.
Rohi A stiffish soil containing a considerable amount of clay.
Rubakati-akhir Brief abstract of settlement proceedings appended to settlement record (see paragraph 270).


Sabik Former.
Sadr Headquarters station.
Sad malguzars Leading land-owners allowed to become responsible for revenue assessed on an estate (see paragraph 17).
Sailab Flooded or kept permanently moist by river.
Sailaba Same as sailab (q.v.).
Sair Miscellaneous income derived from an estate by its owners over and above the profits fo cultivation (see paragraph 356).
Sanad A deed of grant.
Sarak Road.
Sarsahi A measure of area (See paragraph 243).
Sarsari parts An all-round rate on cultivation without discrimination of soils or classes of land.
Sawani Cropped only in the autumn harvest.
Sayar See sair.
Ser A measure of weight, 1/40th of maund.
Seri Grant of land made by pathan Chief to me who helped him with their swords or their prayers.
Sermani A fee of one ser in the mauud of produce paid in recognition of proprietary title.
Shahjahani bigha See bigha.
Shahnahri Irrigated from a canal owned by the State.
Shajra Map, plan.
Shajra kishtwar Village common land.
Shikast Broken.
Shora Saltpetre.
Sihadda Masonry pillar or platform erected at point where boundaries of three villages meet.
Silhdar Same as chakdar (q.v.).
Sir jagir Land owned by jagirdat in an estate of which the revenue is assigned to him.
Sir-o-pa Fee paid to proprietor when entering on possession of land (see paragraph 168).
Siwai Cesses also same as sair (q.v.).


Tafrik Distribution of revenue over holdings.
Tahrij asamiwar Abstract of khatauni showing tenants, holdings with their areas and rents; but without details of fields (see paragraph 270).
Tehsil A sub-division of a district, charge of Tehsildar.
Tehsildar Official in chief executive charge of a Tehsil.
Takavi Loan granted by Government to a land-owner for agricultural purposes.
Talukdar A superior proprietor (see paragraphs 103, 143 and 145).
Taraddadkar A class of tenant in jhang (see paragraph 211).
Taraf A sub-division of an estate.
Tarika paimaish Note of method of suvey (Appendix XXI).
Tarmim Correction.
Tawani A class of tenant in Kohat
Thana Police Station or the jurisdiction of a police Station (see paragraph 579).
Tahana patti Marriage fee levied by proprietors of village from other residents (See paragraph 94).
Thok A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).
Thula A sub-division of an estate (see paragraph 128).


Vesh Periodical redistribution of land among proprietors (see paragraph 158).


Wajib-ul-arz Village administration paper (see paragraphs 295-296-A and Appendix VIII).
Waris Landholder (see paragraphs 152, 175, 178 and 197-A).
Warisi Right of the waris (q.v.).
Water Line.
Wirsana Fee paid in recognition of proprietary title.


Zabti Cash rents levied on account of certain crops.
Zail A group of estates out of which some representative man is appointed zaildar.
Zaildar A man of influence appointed to have charge of a zail.
Zamindar Land-owner.
Zamindari A form of village tenure (see paragraph 136).
Zamindari bigha See bigha.
Zari-I-Zagha Fund formed out of commutation paid by persons who do not perform the chher (q.v.) labour for which they are responsible.
Zillah (zil’s) District.